[pthread-stubs,v2,3/4] Rework the pthread-stub design

Submitted by Emil Velikov on Feb. 17, 2017, 6:37 p.m.

Details

Message ID 20170217183722.14485-4-emil.l.velikov@gmail.com
State New
Series "Rework pthread-stubs design/implementation"
Headers show

Commit Message

Emil Velikov Feb. 17, 2017, 6:37 p.m.
From: Emil Velikov <emil.velikov@collabora.com>

The current design handles the most common use-cases, although it causes
breakage on others (when a pthreads liked library is dlopened). Refer to
the README for further details.

The new design, makes pthread-stubs a "meta" package which _never_
provides a library but only a .pc file.

pthread-stubs checks if the run-time (libc or otherwise) expose
lightweight pthread symbols to link against and defaults to a full blown
pthread.

This way projects can use the Cflags/Libs without having to know the
details. Alternatively they can directly link against the pthread
implementation, although that might bring unwarranted overhead.

v2:
 - Remove m4 macro, always use -pthread and document why.
 - Sort the symbol list, document how it's derived what is allowed and
what not.
 - Rework the README to start from current state of afairs to past ones.
 - Document platforms that are 'safe' and ones that are not.

Signed-off-by: Emil Velikov <emil.velikov@collabora.com>
---
 Makefile.am         |  10 -----
 README              | 112 +++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++-----
 configure.ac        |  60 ++++++++++++++--------------
 pthread-stubs.pc.in |   3 +-
 stubs.c.m4          |  91 ------------------------------------------
 5 files changed, 135 insertions(+), 141 deletions(-)
 delete mode 100644 stubs.c.m4

Patch hide | download patch | download mbox

diff --git a/Makefile.am b/Makefile.am
index 2329572..93123a6 100644
--- a/Makefile.am
+++ b/Makefile.am
@@ -1,12 +1,2 @@ 
 pkgconfigdir = $(libdir)/pkgconfig
 pkgconfig_DATA = pthread-stubs.pc
-
-if BUILD_LIB
-stubs.c: list.m4 stubs.c.m4
-	m4 -P -I $(srcdir) stubs.c.m4 > $@
-
-lib_LTLIBRARIES = libpthread-stubs.la
-nodist_libpthread_stubs_la_SOURCES = stubs.c
-CLEANFILES = stubs.c
-endif
-EXTRA_libpthread_stubs_la_SOURCES = stubs.c.m4
diff --git a/README b/README
index 4e7e85b..88bdff2 100644
--- a/README
+++ b/README
@@ -1,9 +1,103 @@ 
-This library provides weak aliases for pthread functions not provided in libc
-or otherwise available by default.  Libraries like libxcb rely on pthread
-stubs to use pthreads optionally, becoming thread-safe when linked to
-libpthread, while avoiding any performance hit when running single-threaded.
-libpthread-stubs supports this behavior even on platforms which do not supply
-all the necessary pthread stubs.  On platforms which already supply all the
-necessary pthread stubs, this package ships only the pkg-config file
-pthread-stubs.pc, to allow libraries to unconditionally express a dependency
-on pthread-stubs and still obtain correct behavior.
+Project description
+-------------------
+
+Currently the project provides only a pkg-config [.pc] file, pthread-stubs.pc.
+The latter contains the Cflags/Libs flags applicable to programs/libraries
+that use only lightweight pthread API. See the next sections for the reasoning
+and implementation details.
+
+Historically this project used to provide either:
+ - a .pc file, when the C runtime was providing the pthread symbols
+or
+ - a .pc file and a library which implements weak stubs for the pthread symbols,
+which are not available in the C runtime.
+
+Since then, the latter case was found to have a fundamental design issue.
+
+
+Design
+------
+
+On platforms where the lightweight pthread symbols are provided by the runtime,
+the .pc files provides empty Cflags/Libs flags.
+
+Currently the following platforms fit the above category:
+ - GNU/Linux - GCC/Clang/GLibC/Musl
+ - Solaris 10 and later
+ - Cygwin
+ - GNU/Hurd
+ - GNU/kFreeBSD
+
+For others, each of Cflags/Libs expands to full blown pthread.
+
+For example:
+ - FreeBSD and derivatives
+ - OpenBSD - uses a heavily patched copy of pthread-stubs to workaround this
+ - other BSD platforms ?
+
+Unchecked:
+ - MSYS/MINGW
+ - Darwin - GCC/Clang - should be the same as their Linux counter part
+
+
+Many platforms have their own eccentric way of managing pthread compilation and
+linkage. The ones realistically supported by pthread-stubs [and projects that
+depend on it] work with '-pthread'.
+
+GCC supports -pthread for:
+Aarch64, ARM, Darwin, IA-64, MIPS, PowerPC, SPARC, x86
+Note: Cygwin and x86 Windows may need a trivial patch.
+
+Clang:
+Aarch64, ARM, x86 and likely others.
+
+SunCC/Oracle compiler:
+Requires -mt -lpthread. As of Solaris 10 (oldest currently supported version)
+all the pthread API lives in libc. Thus we'll _never_ get here.
+
+
+With previous design, one could get mismatched calls to the pthreads API.
+Consider the following scenario:
+ - Program and/or its dependencies links only against libpthread-stubs,
+since it uses lightweight API. Say pthread_mutex_lock.
+ - At a later stage the program and/or its dependencies dlopens a library
+which effectively [either directly or via any of its own dependencies] pulls a
+full blown pthread. Let's call that libB.
+ - The libpthread-stubs weak symbols get overridden by the libB ones.
+ - pthread_mutex_unlock is executed (which now originates from libB) and BOOM.
+
+Amount and severity of issues depend on a number of factors. In either case
+things go horribly wrong sooner on later.
+
+
+The symbols
+-----------
+
+The following list of symbols is taken from the libc provided by GLibC.
+
+It is deemed sufficient and reasonably accurate of what the 'lightweight'
+pthread symbols are, since GLibC is one of the few (the only) implementations
+which has the distinct split.
+
+Most/all other C runtime implementations provide all the pthread API in a
+single library.
+
+Note that the following list is incomplete wrt libc-2.24.so and that further
+symbols may be added in the future to bring the two closer. Adding symbols
+which are not available in GLibC libc is NOT allowed.
+
+   pthread_condattr_destroy
+   pthread_condattr_init
+   pthread_cond_broadcast
+   pthread_cond_destroy
+   pthread_cond_init
+   pthread_cond_signal
+   pthread_cond_timedwait
+   pthread_cond_wait
+   pthread_equal
+   pthread_exit
+   pthread_mutex_destroy
+   pthread_mutex_init
+   pthread_mutex_lock
+   pthread_mutex_unlock
+   pthread_self
diff --git a/configure.ac b/configure.ac
index ef300ad..09d3b78 100644
--- a/configure.ac
+++ b/configure.ac
@@ -9,39 +9,39 @@  AC_CONFIG_HEADERS([config.h])
 AC_PROG_LIBTOOL
 AC_PROG_CC
 
-
-dnl Detection code for compilers supporting the __attribute__((weak, alias))
-dnl feature. Original code present in unieject's repository
-dnl Diego Pettenò <flameeyes@gentoo.org>
-ac_save_CFLAGS="$CFLAGS"
-CFLAGS="$CFLAGS -Werror"
-AC_CACHE_CHECK([if compiler supports __attribute__((weak, alias))],
-	[cc_cv_attribute_alias],
-	[AC_COMPILE_IFELSE([
-		void other_function(void *foo) { }
-		void some_function(void *foo) __attribute__((weak, alias("other_function")));
-		],
-		[cc_cv_attribute_alias=yes],
-		[cc_cv_attribute_alias=no])
-	])
-CFLAGS="$ac_save_CFLAGS"
-if test "x$cc_cv_attribute_alias" = "xyes"; then
-	AC_DEFINE([SUPPORT_ATTRIBUTE_ALIAS], 1, [Define this if the compiler supports the alias attribute])
+dnl Check if the following functions have stubs.
+dnl See the README for specifics about the list.
+funclist="\
+pthread_condattr_destroy \
+pthread_condattr_init \
+pthread_cond_broadcast \
+pthread_cond_destroy \
+pthread_cond_init \
+pthread_cond_signal \
+pthread_cond_timedwait \
+pthread_cond_wait \
+pthread_equal \
+pthread_exit \
+pthread_mutex_destroy \
+pthread_mutex_init \
+pthread_mutex_lock \
+pthread_mutex_unlock \
+pthread_self"
+
+AC_CHECK_FUNCS($funclist, [], [HAVE_STUBS=no])
+
+
+if test "x$HAVE_STUBS" != xno; then
+    PKG_CONFIG_CFLAGS=
+    PKG_CONFIG_LIBS=
+else
+    dnl See the README why '-pthread' is deemed sufficient.
+    PKG_CONFIG_CFLAGS="-pthread"
+    PKG_CONFIG_LIBS="-pthread"
 fi
 
-dnl Grab the list of functions to test for from our template file.
-m4_define([funclist], [])
-m4_define([alias], [m4_if([$1],[na],[], [m4_append([funclist], [$3 ])])])
-m4_divert_push([KILL])
-m4_include([list.m4])
-m4_divert_pop([KILL])
-
-dnl Check which functions we need to provide aliases for.
-PKG_CONFIG_LIBS=
-AC_CHECK_FUNCS(funclist, [], [PKG_CONFIG_LIBS='-L${libdir} -lpthread-stubs'])
-
+AC_SUBST([PKG_CONFIG_CFLAGS])
 AC_SUBST([PKG_CONFIG_LIBS])
-AM_CONDITIONAL(BUILD_LIB, test "x$PKG_CONFIG_LIBS" != x)
 
 AC_CONFIG_FILES([Makefile pthread-stubs.pc])
 AC_OUTPUT
diff --git a/pthread-stubs.pc.in b/pthread-stubs.pc.in
index 6900598..d256d77 100644
--- a/pthread-stubs.pc.in
+++ b/pthread-stubs.pc.in
@@ -3,6 +3,7 @@  exec_prefix=@exec_prefix@
 libdir=@libdir@
 
 Name: pthread stubs
-Description: Stubs missing from libc for standard pthread functions
+Description: Meta package for pthread symbols - defaults to heavyweight ones if the C runtime does not provide lightweight ones.
 Version: @PACKAGE_VERSION@
+Cflags: @PKG_CONFIG_CFLAGS@
 Libs: @PKG_CONFIG_LIBS@
diff --git a/stubs.c.m4 b/stubs.c.m4
deleted file mode 100644
index e069b9e..0000000
--- a/stubs.c.m4
+++ /dev/null
@@ -1,91 +0,0 @@ 
-m4_divert(-1)m4_dnl -*- c -*-
-m4_changequote(`[',`]')
-m4_changecom()
-
-m4_define([upcase], [m4_translit([$*], [a-z], [A-Z])])
-
-m4_define([alias], [m4_dnl
-#ifndef upcase(HAVE_[$3])
-#define upcase(NEED_[$1]_STUB)
-# ifdef SUPPORT_ATTRIBUTE_ALIAS
-[$2] [$3]() __attribute__ ((weak, [alias] ("__pthread_[$1]_stub")));
-# else
-#  pragma weak [$3] = __pthread_[$1]_stub
-# endif
-#endif
-])
-
-m4_divert(0)m4_dnl
-/* Copyright (C) 2006 Diego Pettenò
- * Copyright (C) 2010 M Joonas Pihlaja
- * Inspired by libX11 code copyright (c) 1995 David E. Wexelblat.
- *
- * This is an automatically created file from stubs.c.m4.  Do not edit.
- *
- * Permission is hereby granted, free of charge, to any person obtaining a
- * copy of this software and associated documentation files (the "Software"),
- * to deal in the Software without restriction, including without limitation
- * the rights to use, copy, modify, merge, publish, distribute, sublicense,
- * and/or sell copies of the Software, and to permit persons to whom the
- * Software is furnished to do so, subject to the following conditions:
- *
- * The above copyright notice and this permission notice shall be included in
- * all copies or substantial portions of the Software.
- *
- * THE SOFTWARE IS PROVIDED "AS IS", WITHOUT WARRANTY OF ANY KIND, EXPRESS OR
- * IMPLIED, INCLUDING BUT NOT LIMITED TO THE WARRANTIES OF MERCHANTABILITY,
- * FITNESS FOR A PARTICULAR PURPOSE AND NONINFRINGEMENT. IN NO EVENT SHALL THE
- * AUTHORS BE LIABLE FOR ANY CLAIM, DAMAGES OR OTHER LIABILITY, WHETHER IN AN
- * ACTION OF CONTRACT, TORT OR OTHERWISE, ARISING FROM, OUT OF OR IN
- * CONNECTION WITH THE SOFTWARE OR THE USE OR OTHER DEALINGS IN THE SOFTWARE.
- *
- * Except as contained in this notice, the names of the authors or their
- * institutions shall not be used in advertising or otherwise to promote the
- * sale, use or other dealings in this Software without prior written
- * authorization from the authors.
- */
-
-#include <pthread.h>
-#include <stdlib.h>
-#include <string.h>
-#include "config.h"
-
-m4_include([list.m4])
-
-#ifdef NEED_ZERO_STUB
-static int __pthread_zero_stub()
-{
-    return 0;
-}
-#endif
-
-#ifdef NEED_ABORT_STUB
-static int __pthread_abort_stub()
-{
-    abort();
-}
-#endif
-
-#ifdef NEED_SELF_STUB
-static pthread_t __pthread_self_stub(void)
-{
-    pthread_t th;
-
-    memset(&th, 0, sizeof (th));
-    return th;
-}
-#endif
-
-#ifdef NEED_EQUAL_STUB
-static int __pthread_equal_stub(pthread_t t1, pthread_t t2)
-{
-    return 1;
-}
-#endif
-
-#ifdef NEED_EXIT_STUB
-static void __pthread_exit_stub(void *ret)
-{
-    exit(EXIT_SUCCESS);
-}
-#endif